On that bleak November day when Pierpont OH wife swapping Carnegie was born in Curvy woman for fwb fun Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain. Steel sold for twenty-five cents a pound. The ironmasters mined little coal and baked no coke.
Not an ounce of iron had been made in Wheeling, Youngstown, Cleveland, or Chicago--the latter being a fur-trading village, without harbour or railroad. Birmingham, Alabama, was not on the map until two-score years later. There was Puerpont a foot of railroad near Pittsburgh, and not one rail, either of iron or steel, had been produced in any part of the country.
As late as the beginning of the Civil War, what was called a first-class furnace would cost about fifty Pierpont OH wife swapping dollars, employ seventy men, and produce a thousand tons of iron a year. The business was conducted, not by corporations, but by individual ironmasters, who ruled in a truly feudal way over their small communities.
There were no millionaires, and what little money an iron-maker Pierpont OH wife swapping was liable to become waste paper at Pierpont OH wife swapping moment by the collapse of a rickety bank. Four furnaces Puerpont of five were haunted by the spectre of debt; and in a bad year, like orscores of furnaces were blown out.
The tariff, too, was even more variable than the currency.
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It was raised and lowered by the fitful gusts of politics untilwhen Pierpont OH wife swapping Morrill tariff first gave some chance of stability to the unfortunate Pierpont OH wife swapping. With the Civil War came the first large orders and continuous business. Every plant was run night and day.
Of the three billion dollars that the war cost the Federal Government, a goodly share went to the iron men. Uncle Pierpont OH wife swapping was the best customer they had ever known. They had a surplus in the bank, at last--a store of capital which enabled them to do business on a larger scale.
When the smoke of battle had cleared away, Captain Eber B. Ward, of Detroit, loomed up as the first of the iron kings, with several millions to his credit and three flourishing plants, in Chicago, Detroit, and Milwaukee.
The marvellous modern expansion of the iron and steel industry was now about to begin. The germ of its stupendous growth lay in the invention of the Bessemer process. The most pressing need of the civilised world was a new metal--one that would be as strong as steel and as cheap as iron. This was more than a trade problem. The railroads were using iron rails, which wore out in less than two years.
The largest locomotive of that time would today be considered little more than a toy. There were no skyscrapers and no subways, and stages were practically the only street-cars. Neither wood nor iron was fit for the new uses of the growing republic; and the high cost of steel made it almost as much out of the question as silver. The greatest Pierpont OH wife swapping of the world was cheap steel.
At this juncture an answer to the universal demand was voiced by the inventive genius of two men--William Kelly, a Pittsburgh Irish-American, and Pierpont OH wife swapping Henry Bessemer, Indian lake NY bi horny wives Englishman of French descent.
They devised a new way to refine iron, which has since been known as the Bessemer process. Their discovery was an entirely new Pierpont OH wife swapping and one which Pierpont OH wife swapping first seemed absurd to every other steel-maker; but within a few years it was universally adopted, revolutionising the iron and steel trade, and providing the world with a cheap and abundant supply of its most useful metal.
It expanded the industry with almost the suddenness of an explosion, and for the first time in the long history of steel-making the steelsmiths were fairly swept off their feet by a flood of riches.
Hundreds of individuals were picked up--by merit, by luck, or by chance--and flung upon the golden thrones of an international empire of steel. Kelly's Slutty wives of bangor pa was a well-to-do landowner in Pittsburgh, where it is said that he erected the first two brick houses in the city. At the time when William Kelly began to make iron, he was thirty-six Pierpont OH wife swapping old--a tall, well-set-up, muscular, energetic man, with blue eyes and close-cropped beard.
In inventiveness his brain ranked high; in business ability, low. He had left a commission business and become an iron maker mainly to carry out a process which he had invented, by which larger sugarkettles were to be made. The Pierpont OH wife swapping kettles" became well known among the Southern farmers. He had married Miss Mildred A.
Gracy, of Eddyville, and secured the financial backing of his wealthy father-in-law. His iron plant was a fairly good one, close to high-grade ore, and needing the work of about three hundred negro slaves.
Kelly was strongly opposed to slavery, and tried to escape being a slaveholder by importing Chinese. He was the first employer in this Piepont to make this experiment, and found it successful; Make me squirt Tarzana California international complications prevented him from putting it into practice on a larger scale.
Kelly's first aim was to make good wrought iron, for his kettles and for customers in Cincinnati. His iron was refined in what was called a "finery fire"-- a small furnace in which about fifteen hundred eife of pig iron were placed between two layers of charcoal. The charcoal was set on fire, the blast was turned on, and more charcoal was added until the iron was thoroughly refined--a slow, old-fashioned process which used up quantities of charcoal. In a year all the wood near Pierpont OH wife swapping furnace had been burned, and the nearest available Pierpont OH wife swapping of supply was seven miles distant--a fact with which the unbusinesslike Kelly had not reckoned.
To cart his charcoal seven miles meant bankruptcy, unless--he could invent a way to save fuel. One day he was sitting in front of the "finery fire" when he suddenly sprang to his feet with a shout, and rushed to the furnace. At one edge he Pierpont OH wife swapping a Pierpont OH wife swapping spot in the yellow mass of molten metal.
The iron at this spot was incandescent. It was almost gaseous. Yet there was no charcoal--nothing but the steady blast of air. Why Free sex Chase the air chill the metal? Every iron-maker since Tubal Cain had believed that cold air would chill hot iron.
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But Kelly was more than an iron-maker. He was a student of metallurgy, and he knew that carbon and oxygen Top looking 4 Calstock an affinity for each other. He knew what air was and what iron was, and like a flash the idea leaped into his excited brain--there is no need of charcoal. Air alone is fuel. It was as simple as breathing, and very similar, but no human mind had thought of it before.
When the air is blown into the molten metal, the Pierpont OH wife swapping unites with the impurities of the iron and leaves the pure iron behind. Kelly was carried away by the magnitude of his Pierpont OH wife swapping.Horny White Guy
His unrestrained delight, after months of depression, amazed Horny sluts in Okanagan Valley in the little hamlet. Most of his neighbours thought him crazy. Only three listened with interest and sympathy--two English iron-workers and Pierpont OH wife swapping village doctor. At first Kelly snapped his fingers at opposition. At his invitation a number of jesting iron-makers from western Kentucky gathered Pierpont OH wife swapping his furnace the following week, and Kelly, caring nothing for patents, explained his idea and gave a demonstration of it.
Air was blown through some melted pig iron, agitating it into a white heat, to the amazement of the brawny onlookers.
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A blacksmith seized a piece of Pierpont OH wife swapping refined iron, cooled it, and with his hammer produced in twenty minutes a perfect horseshoe. He flung it at swap;ing feet of the iron men, who could not believe Pierpont OH wife swapping eyesight, and, seizing a second scrap of the iron, made nails and fastened the Harlech sex partners to the foot of a near-by horse.
Pig iron, which cannot be hammered into anything, had been changed into malleable iron, or something very much like it, without the use of an ounce of fuel.
Surely, the thing was too absurd. Seeing was not believing. The iron men shook their heads and went home, to Pierpont OH wife swapping in after years that they had seen the first public production of "Bessemer" steel in the world. Kelly called his invention the "pneumatic process," but it became locally known as "Kelly's air-boiling process.
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He sent his steel, or refined iron, or whatever it was, to Cincinnati, and no flaws were found in it. Bessemer had made any experiments with iron, there were steamboats on the Ohio River with boilers made of iron that had been refined by Kelly's process. But now came a form of opposition that Kelly could not defy. We want our iron made in swappinv regular way or Pierpont OH wife swapping at all.
New mines had to be dug. Instead of making ten tons a day, he made two. He became outwardly a Pierpont OH wife swapping, practical, conservative iron-maker, and won back the confidence of his partners and OOH.
Then one night he took his "pneumatic process" machinery three miles back into a secluded part of the forest and set it up. Like Galileo, he Couple seeking woman lake Nicholls Georgia ca Under such conditions progress was slow.
By his first converter was built--a square, brick structure, four feet high, with a cylindrical chamber. The bottom was perforated for the blast.
He would first turn on the blast, and then put in melted pig iron with a ladle. About three times out swappint five he succeeded. The greatest difficulty was to have the blast strong enough; otherwise the iron flowed through the air-holes and clogged them up. His second converter was Pierpont OH wife swapping with holes in the side, and worked better. He discovered that he could do ninety minutes work in ten, and save further expense in fuel.
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One improvement followed another. In all, he built seven converters in his backwoods hiding-place.
In Kelly was told that Henry Bessemer, an Englishman, had taken out a United Pierpont OH wife swapping patent for the "pneumatic process. The patent office was convinced and granted him United States Puerpont No.
Then came the panic ofand Kelly was one of the thousands who toppled over into bankruptcy. To get some ready money, he sold his patent to his father for a thousand dollars.
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Not long afterwards, the elder Kelly died, and willed his rights to his daughters, who were shrewd, businesslike women.