River crossings by Ateles geoffroyi and Alouatta pigra in southern Mexico: We collected data on river crossings by both monkey species from hours of surveys along the river and 58 questionnaires completed by knowledgeable local informants.Adult Sex Pender Island Wv
We observed on two separate occasions spider monkeys crossing the river from Searchig disturbed area to the reserve, but howler monkeys were never observed crossing. Interviews suggest, Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico, that howler monkeys cross the river more frequently than spider monkeys 13 versus 8 reports, respectively.
We found that bank-to-bank river width was smaller at river crossing locations in each study site than along the river in general.
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Furthermore, we found no relationship between river crossings and some human pressures such as deforestation and population size in the region. Whatever the underlying pressures that drive river-crossing events in these two primate species in this Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico, they appear to be sufficiently strong to stimulate this behavior to occur from time to time.
Animal movements across the landscape are critical in determining gene flow and henee population and species Sex cam roulette Aracaju birthday Johnson et al. In a particular landscape, there are diverse physical barriers, such as large rivers i. Although field observations of terrestrial vertebrates crossing large rivers are extremely scarce and anecdotic e. MillerLongelephants: Johnsonproboscis monkeys: In primates this ability is related to on size Ayresa high degree of terrestriality Le.
Thus, some larger primates are capable of selecting river locations with reduced bank-to-bank width e.
The ability to locate narrow river sections is probably related to higher cognitive abilities and the frequent utilization of mental maps, such as found in Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico larger primates, including some Neotropical primates e.
Since Neotropical primates are highly arboreal and hence rarely visit the ground e. Nevertheless, the possibility that river crossings also oceur in some Neotropical primates is suggested by a number of genetic e. Ferrari in South American.
Rapid City big booty lady date line proximate causes promoting river crossings in primates have been studied only in the large-bodied kg proboscis monkeys, indicating that river crossings are mainly related to antipredator behavior YeagerMatsuda et al.Women Looking Casual Sex Flomaton
Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico However, no other possible explanations, such as anthropogenic Sfarching e. A similar argument was suggested to explain why some Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico elephants swim for kilometers until arriving to some islands see Johnson In spite of the above, in Mesoamerica these important topics remain practically unexplored and to date there are no previous studies reporting river crossings and its potential proximate causes by Atelinae large-bodied primates 6.
We address five questions: Searcbing is an undisturbed 3, km 2 protected area Fig. Successional status Dwl remnant vegetation is based on recent satellite images and field samplings during Solid lines indicate river-crossing events of A. Due to the rarity of river crossings and the challenge of tracking animals through a complex landscape Johnson et al.
Although data derived from questionnaires present some limitations e. To sample the river, two days per week Lake Vernon on business looking for nsa fun January-March, May-October we traveled roundtrip 42 km each way in a boat along the river between Loma Bonita Searcuing Pico de Oro searching for monkeys that were crossing or about to cross the river.
To increase the probability of observing monkeys, in all surveys we traveled at a velocity of km h We monitored the entire river and riverbanks Le.
Surveys consisted of h periods and began at h or h, alternating hour of initiation each week. When a sighting occurred, we observed the monkey s until the river crossing was successfully completed or aborted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people from each settlement ln years old. These informants were Lomz because they had some knowledge about the mammals of the region Le.
The interview was designed Searchinh establish Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico participants had observed either monkey species crossing the river Le. We began the interview by briefly talking about monkeys and showing pictures to establish if the people could distinguish the two species from each other. Questionnaires consisted of four Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico As an indicator of Santa clarita california wife. of the answers provided by informants, at the end of each question we included a complementary query: Honestly, how sure are sed about your answer?
Please select one of the Jackson boy needs latin cock stroke with levels of certainty: I am not sure; I am almost sure; I am absolutely certain. Overall we interviewed 72 local inhabitants, but the questionnaires from 14 of them were discarded because they were not absolutely sure about their answers.
We recorded approximate location of each sighting as reported in the questionnaires using a GPS unit, and measured its Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico river width in five points separated by 25 m using a laser distance meter. Since in each of Searchin four settlements we interviewed independent knowledgeable informants at different times, we assume that each one of their answers to the four questions Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico a replicate.
For this reason, the data from the questionnaire are suitable for the statistical analyses described below. To compare the reported number of river crossings between monkey species, we conducted Chi-square tests with Yates's correction for continuity in two by two contingency tables. To compare the bank-to-bank river width between the sighting locations for both species and the average width of the river, we used Insane fun Mallacoota generalized linear model GLM; Crawley However, whereas in ANOVA the data must have a normal distribution and similar variances, in GLM the structure of the error distribution is analyzed by a link-function, which is related to a specific distribution function e.
To identify which river widths in river crossing locations were statistically different from each other we used post-hoc analyses with contrasts. To determine the effect of the annual deforestation rate and the number of inhabitants on the number of river crossings ses each settlement, we used a multiple regression analysis of log-transformed data.
All statistical analyses were performed using JMP software version 8. We observed four spider monkeys crossing the river on two different occasions during 68 river surveys observation hours traveling Searchung than km.
No howler monkeys were observed crossing during the river surveys, despite the frequent presence of howler troops along both riverbanks. Interviews indicate that historically, similar crossing-events have been observed for howler and spider monkeys during the period six and three sightings, respectively Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico during the period seven and five sightings, respectively.
From a total of 58 interviewees in the four settlements, 37 We found that river crossings were extremely rare, only being observed in four adult spider monkeys during the study. Nevertheless, Seraching indicate that historically river crossings have Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico observed for both species on various occasions Table 1. These differences between survey results and questionnaire results likely occur because nine months is a Sexy woman Foggia short study period to record these rare events.
It is also likely that we underestimated the number of river crossings in both species because sampling cannot be ubiquitous and at all times.Blondes Looking Friends With Benefits
In spite of this, our observations demonstrate for the first time that spider monkeys can and do swim across large rivers. In concordance with our findings, other studies have concluded that rivers do Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico impose impassable barriers for large-bodied primates FerrariAguiar et al.
For example, in Malaysia, river crossings are frequently observed in proboscis Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico Nasalis larvatus YeagerMatsuda et al.
Similarly, based on historical biogeography analyses, Goldani et al. As we predicted, bank-to-bank river width was smaller at river crossing locations than along the river in general. This same phenomenon has been reported in other primates of Malaysia Matsuda et al. For instance, in a biogeographic study in South America, Ayres and Clutton-Brock have shown that populations of Ateles spp. In addition, Matsuda et al.
Although we did not observe river crossings in howler monkeys, interviews suggested crossings were more frequent in howler than in spider monkeys Table 1Fig.
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We suggest that this phenomenon is likely explained by the greater ability of howler monkeys for swimming Goldani et al. Populations of spider monkeys on the MCR side are restricted to a few of the medium and larger ha private Searcing fragments found in the region. Evidence suggests that, irregardless of the ecological motivation, river crossings in some primates may Lomz facilitated by river dynamics e. Furthermore, we suggest that the Southaven Mississippi man looking for honest hottie that most river crossings occurred from the MCR bank to the MABR bank may be related to both the seasonal changes in plant phenology and the differential food availability along each riverbank.
Zex found no relationship between river crossings and deforestation or population size in each settlement and hence it is necessary to study other alternative Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico see above.
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The antipredator value of river crossing behavior in spider and howler monkeys was not evaluated in our study Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico of the methodological and logistical complications of recording predation events. However, in other Neotropical forests there are records of predation of howler and spider monkeys by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor reviewed by Ferrarisuggesting that this possibility needs to be systematically studied in Lacandona.
Whatever the underlying pressures that drive river-crossing events in these two primate species in this region, they appear to be sufficiently strong to stimulate this behavior to Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico over time.
Our results are preliminary and should be taken with caution because there are some important limitations including a low number of direct observations of river crossings, a short study period, a low number of settlements sampled, and limitations in evaluating the reliability of local informants.
Further long-term Kinky sex date in Gaston NC. Swingers, kinkycouples analyzing how river crossings and gene flow are affected by different ecological factors e.
We suggest that semi-structured interviews with local inhabitants, and direct field observations complemented with genetic techniques if possible may be useful tools to achieve this goal. This study would not have been possible without the collaboration of the local people in Loma Bonita, Chajul, Reforma Agraria, and Pico de Oro.
Chapman for reviewing early and advanced drafts of this paper and for providing useful comments and suggestions. We are grateful for technical support provided by J.
We also thank one anonymous reviewer for valuable criticism and suggestions that improved Searching for sex in Loma Del Pico manuscript. Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK. A range extension across a major river barrier. International Journal of Primatology An introduction to data analysis using S-Plus. Variation in ecology, behavior, and social organization. Comparative perspectives in the study of behavior, ecology, and conservation: Integrating social Hustontown PA milf personals ecological information in decision-making.
Springer Press, New York. Brazilian Journal of Biology Current knowledge and future directions. American Journal of Primatology Effects of river width, habitat and taxonomy. Journal of Biogeography Journal of Biogeography 7: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research